Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|Significant Accounting Policies [Text Block]
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) and include all adjustments necessary for the fair presentation of the Company’s financial position, results of operations and cash flows for the periods presented. The consolidated financial statements reflect the accounts of Summit Wireless Technologies, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, Summit Semiconductor K.K., a Japanese corporation, and WiSA, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company.
Deferred Offering Costs
Deferred offering costs, consisting of legal, accounting, filing and other fees related to the IPO were capitalized during our IPO process. During the year ended December 31, 2018, $607,000 in deferred offering costs were reclassified to additional paid-in capital upon the effectiveness of the IPO. As of December 31, 2017, $54,000 of deferred offering costs were capitalized and included in other assets on the consolidated balance sheet.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Concentration of Credit Risk and Other Risks and Uncertainties
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to significant concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents and accounts receivable. Cash and cash equivalents are deposited in demand and money market accounts at one financial institution. At times, such deposits may be in excess of insured limits. The Company has not experienced any losses on its deposits of cash and cash equivalents.
The Company’s accounts receivable are derived from revenue earned from customers located throughout the world. The Company performs credit evaluations of its customers’ financial condition and sometimes requires full or partial payment in advance of shipping. As of December 31, 2018, the Company had two customers accounting for 47% and 42% of accounts receivable. As of December 31, 2017, the Company had two customers accounting for 74% and 12% of accounts receivable. The Company had two customers accounting for 55% and 37% of its net revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018. The Company had two customers accounting for 61% and 25% of its net revenue for the year ended December 31, 2017.
The Company’s future results of operations involve a number of risks and uncertainties. Factors that could affect the Company’s future operating results and cause actual results to vary materially from expectations include, but are not limited to, rapid technological change, continued acceptance of the Company’s products, competition from substitute products and larger companies, protection of proprietary technology, strategic relationships and dependence on key individuals.
The Company relies on sole-source suppliers to manufacture some of the components used in its product. The Company’s manufacturers and suppliers may encounter problems during manufacturing due to a variety of reasons, any of which could delay or impede their ability to meet demand. The Company is heavily dependent on a single contractor in China for assembly and testing of its products.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with original maturities of three months or less to be cash equivalents.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Accounts receivable are recorded at the invoice amount and are generally not interest bearing. The Company reviews its trade receivables aging to identify specific customers with known disputes or collection issues. The Company exercises judgment when determining the adequacy of these reserves as it evaluates historical bad debt trends and changes to customers’ financial conditions. Uncollectible receivables are recorded as bad debt expense when all efforts to collect have been exhausted and recoveries are recognized when they are received. As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, there was no allowance for doubtful accounts.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Carrying amounts of certain of the Company’s financial instruments and investments, including cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, prepaid expenses and other current assets, accounts payable and accrued liabilities approximate fair value due to their relatively short maturities.
Inventories, principally purchased components, are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is determined using an average cost, which approximates actual cost on a first-in, first-out basis. Inventory in excess of salable amounts and inventory which is considered obsolete based upon changes in existing technology is written off. At the point of loss recognition, a new lower cost basis for that inventory is established and subsequent changes in facts and circumstances do not result in the restoration or increase in the new cost basis.
Property and Equipment, Net
Property and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation of property and equipment is computed using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives of two to five years. Leasehold improvements are amortized on a straight-line basis over the shorter of the useful life or term of the lease. Upon retirement or sale, the cost and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the balance sheet and the resulting gain or loss is reflected in operations. Maintenance and repairs are charged to operations as incurred.
Intangible assets as of December 31, 2018 and 2017 consisted of trademarks and are presented at cost, net of accumulated amortization. The intangible assets are amortized using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives of three years, which approximates the economic benefit. If our underlying assumptions regarding the estimated useful life of an intangible asset change, then the amortization period, amortization expense and the carrying value for such asset would be adjusted accordingly. During fiscal 2018 and 2017, no changes were made to the estimated useful life of intangible assets.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company evaluates its long-lived assets for indicators of possible impairment by comparison of the carrying amounts to future net undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by such assets when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Should an impairment exist, the impairment loss would be measured based on the excess carrying value of the asset over the asset’s fair value or discounted estimates of future cash flows. The Company has not identified any such impairment losses to date.
Convertible Financial Instruments
The Company bifurcates conversion options and warrants from their host instruments and accounts for them as freestanding derivative financial instruments if certain criteria are met. The criteria include circumstances in which (a) the economic characteristics and risks of the embedded derivative instrument are not clearly and closely related to the economic characteristics and risks of the host contract, (b) the hybrid instrument that embodies both the embedded derivative instrument and the host contract is not re-measured at fair value under otherwise applicable generally accepted accounting principles with changes in fair value reported in earnings as they occur and (c) a separate instrument with the same terms as the embedded derivative instrument would be considered a derivative instrument. An exception to this rule is when the host instrument is deemed to be conventional, as that term is described under applicable U.S. GAAP.
When the Company has determined that the embedded conversion options and warrants should be bifurcated from their host instruments, discounts are recorded for the intrinsic value of conversion options embedded in the instruments based upon the differences between the fair value of the underlying common stock at the commitment date of the transaction and the effective conversion price embedded in the instrument.
Debt discounts under these arrangements are amortized to interest expense using the interest method over the earlier of the term of the related debt or their earliest date of redemption.
Warrants for Common Shares and Derivative Financial Instruments
Warrants for common shares and other derivative financial instruments are classified as equity if the contracts (1) require physical settlement or net-share settlement or (2) give the Company a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement in its own shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement). Contracts which (1) require net-cash settlement (including a requirement to net cash settle the contract if an event occurs and if that event is outside the control of the Company), (2) give the counterparty a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement in shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement), or (3) that contain reset provisions that do not qualify for the scope exception are classified as equity or liabilities. The Company assesses classification of its warrants for common shares and other derivatives at each reporting date to determine whether a change in classification between equity and liabilities is required.
The issuance of the convertible notes payable generated a beneficial conversion feature (“BCF”), which arises when a debt or equity security is issued with an embedded conversion option that is beneficial to the investor or in the money at inception because the conversion option has an effective strike price that is less than the market price of the underlying stock at the commitment date. The Company recognized the BCF by allocating the intrinsic value of the conversion option, which is the number of shares of common stock available upon conversion multiplied by the difference between the effective conversion price per share and the fair value of common stock per share on the commitment date, to common shares, resulting in a discount on the convertible debt.
The Company’s products are generally subject to a one year warranty, which provides for the repair, rework, or replacement of products (at the Company’s option) that fail to perform within the stated specification. The Company has assessed its historical claims and, to date, product warranty claims have not been significant. The Company will continue to assess if there should be a warranty accrual going forward.
Revenue is recognized when control of the promised goods or services is transferred to customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. Sales of products with alternative use account for the majority of our revenue and are recognized at a point in time.
Taxes assessed by a governmental authority that are both imposed on and concurrent with a specific revenue-producing transaction, that are collected by us from a customer and deposited with the relevant government authority, are excluded from revenue. Our revenue arrangements do not contain significant financing components.
Sales to certain distributors are made under arrangements which provide the distributors with price adjustments, price protection, stock rotation and other allowances under certain circumstances. The Company does not provide its customers with a contractual right of return. However, the Company accepts limited returns on a case-by-case basis. These returns, adjustments and other allowances are accounted for as variable consideration. We estimate these amounts based on the expected amount to be provided to customers and reduce revenue recognized. We believe that there will not be significant changes to our estimates of variable consideration.
If a customer pays consideration, or the Company has a right to an amount of consideration that is unconditional before we transfer a good or service to the customer, those amounts are classified as deferred income/ advances received from customers which are included in other current liabilities when the payment is made or it is due, whichever is earlier.
Research and Development
Research and development costs are charged to operations as incurred.
Advertising costs are charged to sales and marketing expenses as incurred. Advertising costs for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 were not material.
Comprehensive loss includes all changes within stockholders’ equity (deficit) that are not the result of transactions with stockholders. Accumulated other comprehensive loss includes the foreign currency translation adjustments arising from the consolidation of the Company’s foreign subsidiary.
The financial position and results of operations of the Company’s foreign operations are measured using currencies other than the U.S. dollar as their functional currencies. Accordingly, for these operations all assets and liabilities are translated into U.S. dollars at the current exchange rates as of the respective balance sheet date. Expense items are translated using the weighted average exchange rates prevailing during the period. Cumulative gains and losses from the translation of these operations’ financial statements are reported as a separate component of stockholders’ equity (deficit), while foreign currency transaction gains or losses, resulting from remeasuring local currency to the U.S. dollar are recorded in the consolidated statements of operations in other income (expense), net and were not material for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017.
Net Loss per Common Share
Basic net loss per common share is calculated by dividing the net loss by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period, without consideration for potentially dilutive securities. Diluted net loss per common share is computed by dividing the net loss by the weighted average number of common shares and potentially dilutive common share equivalents outstanding for the period determined using the treasury-stock and if-converted methods. For purposes of the diluted net loss per common share calculation, preferred stock, warrants for common stock, restricted stock units and shares issuable upon the conversion of convertible notes payable are considered to be potentially dilutive securities.
For the years ended December 31, 2018, warrants to purchase 8,641,813 shares of common stock, and 964,505 shares of restricted stock have been excluded from the calculation of net loss per common share because the inclusion would be antidilutive. For the years ended December 31, 2017, warrants to purchase 5,555,577 shares of common stock and 2,762,594 shares of preferred stock have been excluded from the calculation of net loss per common share because the inclusion would be antidilutive. In addition, shares issuable upon the conversion of convertible notes payable have been excluded from the calculation of net loss per common share for all periods presented because the inclusion would be antidilutive.
Prior to December 31, 2017, the Company was taxed as a partnership for federal and state income tax purposes. As such, partners were taxed on their share of earnings and deductions of the Company, regardless of the amount of distributions received. Generally, the Company was not subject to federal income tax but was subject to California minimum tax. Effective December 31, 2017, the Company converted from a Limited Liability Company to a C Corporation and is subject to federal and state taxes at the applicable C Corporation rates which were 34.0% and
7.72%, respectively, at that date.
Deferred taxes are provided on the liability method whereby deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible temporary differences, and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards and deferred tax liabilities are recognized for taxable temporary differences. Temporary differences are the differences between the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and their tax bases. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when, in the opinion of management, it is “more-likely-than-not” that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The Company has recognized valuation allowances against its deferred tax assets as of December 31, 2018. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are adjusted for the effects of changes in tax laws and rates on the date of enactment.
On December 22, 2017, H.R. 1, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, was signed into law reducing the federal C Corporation rate to
21.0% effective January 1, 2018. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the tax consequences of temporary differences between the reported amount of assets and liabilities and their tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are adjusted for the effects of changes in tax laws and rates on the date of enactment.
The Company uses a comprehensive model for recognizing, measuring, presenting, and disclosing in the consolidated financial statements tax positions taken or expected to be taken on a tax return. A tax position is recognized as a benefit only if it is ’‘“more-likely-than-not”’’ that the tax position would be sustained in a tax examination, with a tax examination being presumed to occur. The amount recognized is the largest amount of tax benefit that is greater than
50% likely of being realized on examination. For tax positions not meeting the “more-likely-than-not” test, no tax benefit is recorded. The Company recognizes interest accrued and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits in tax expense. During the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company recognized no interest and penalties.
Recently Issued and Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued an Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) on revenue from contracts with customers, ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“Topic 606”). This standard update outlines a single comprehensive model for entities to use in accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers. The guidance is effective for annual reporting periods including interim reporting reports beginning after December 15, 2017. Collectively, we refer to Topic 606, its related amendments and Subtopic 340-40 as the “new standard”.
On January 1, 2018, we adopted the new standard using the modified retrospective method applied to all contracts that are not completed contracts at the date of initial application (i.e., January 1, 2018). Results for reporting periods after January 1, 2018 are presented under the new standard, while prior period amounts are not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with our historic accounting. There was no impact on the opening accumulated deficit as of January 1, 2018 due to the adoption of the new standard.
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-09, “Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting” which is applied to any company that changes the terms or conditions of a share-based award, considered a modification. Modification accounting would be applied unless certain conditions were met related to the fair value of the award, the vesting conditions and the classification of the modified award. This Update is effective for all entities for annual periods, and interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2017. There was no impact on the consolidated financial statements as of January 1, 2018 due to the adoption of the new standard.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, “Statement of Cash Flows, Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments (Topic 230)”. This guidance addresses specific cash flow issues with the objective of reducing the diversity in practice for the treatment of these issues. The areas identified include: debt prepayment or debt extinguishment costs; settlement of zero-coupon debt instruments; contingent consideration payments made after a business combination; proceeds from the settlement of insurance claims; proceeds from the settlement of corporate-owned life insurance policies; distributions received from equity method investees; beneficial interests in securitization transactions and application of the predominance principle with respect to separately identifiable cash flows. This guidance is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within that reporting period, with early adoption permitted. There was no impact on the consolidated financial statements as of January 1, 2018 due to the adoption of the new standard.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-18, “Statement of Cash Flows, Restricted Cash (Topic 230)”. This guidance requires that a statement of cash flows explain the total change during the period of cash, cash equivalents, and amounts generally described as restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents. Amounts described as restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents should be included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning of period and end of period to total amounts shown on the statement of cash flows. This guidance is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within that reporting period, with early adoption permitted. There was no impact on the consolidated financial statements as of January 1, 2018 due to the adoption of the new standard.
Recently Issued and Not Yet Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, “Leases”. The objective of the update is to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by recognizing lease assets and liabilities on the balance sheet for leases with a lease term of more than 12 months. In addition, the update will require additional disclosures regarding key information about leasing arrangements. Under existing guidance, operating leases are not recorded as lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet. The update will be effective for fiscal years after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted. The Company does not expect the adoption of this standard to significantly impact the consolidated financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-13, “Fair Value Measurement Disclosure Framework - Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement”. As part of the FASB's disclosure framework project, it has eliminated, amended and added disclosure requirements for fair value measurements. Entities will no longer be required to disclose the amount of, and reasons for, transfers between Level 1 and Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy, the policy of timing of transfers between levels of the fair value hierarchy and the valuation processes for Level 3 fair value measurements. Public companies will be required to disclose the range and weighted average used to develop significant unobservable inputs for Level 3 fair value measurements. This ASU is effective for public entities for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted as of the beginning of any interim or annual reporting period. We expect this ASU will have an impact on the Company's disclosures.
In June 2018, FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07, “Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting”. ASU 2018-07 applies to all entities that enter into share-based payment transactions for acquiring goods and services from nonemployees. The amendments in ASU 2018-07 expand the scope of Topic 718, Compensation - Stock Compensation, to include share-based payments transactions to nonemployees. Changes to the accounting for nonemployee awards as a result of ASU 2018-07 include: 1) equity-classified nonemployee share-based payment awards are measured at the grant date, instead of the previous requirement to remeasure the awards through the performance completion date, 2) for awards with performance conditions, compensation cost is recognized when the achievement of the performance condition is probable, rather than upon achievement, and 3) the current requirement to reassess the classification (equity or liability) for nonemployee awards upon vesting is eliminated. ASU 2018-07 clarifies that Topic 718 does not apply to financing transactions or awards granted to customers as part of a contract accounted for under Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. The amendments in ASU 2018-07 are effective for public business entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within that fiscal year. An entity should only remeasure liability-classified awards that have not been settled by the date of adoption and equity-classified awards for which the measurement date has not been established through a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the fiscal year of adoption. The Company does not expect the adoption of this standard to significantly impact the consolidated financial statements.
We have reviewed other recent accounting pronouncements and concluded they are either not applicable to the business, or no material effect is expected on the consolidated financial statements as a result of future adoption.